A bioassay involves measurement of the effect of a putative toxic substance on organisms or parts thereof.

“As a branch of applied statistics, biological assay appears to have a somewhat specialized
appeal. Although a few statisticians have worked in it intensively, to the majority it appears
as a topic that can be neglected, either because of its difficulties or because it is trivial. … . Despite this, I am convinced that many features of bioassay are outstandingly
good for concentrating the mind on important parts of biometric practice and
statistical inference.”

D. J. Finney Source: International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique,Vol. 47, No. 1 (Apr., 1979), pp. 1-12